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Computed Expressions

The preceding section discussed how addressing works in XPath. The language is also capable of performing simple computations that return strings, booleans, or numbers. XForms defines the term Computed Expression to represent this special usage of XPath.

XPath defines a number of built-in functions, and XForms adds a few more. This section lists every built-in function. Note that even though function parameters are unnamed in XPath, the descriptions below include parameter names for descriptive purposes.

The XPath specification itself is silent on the issue of implementation-specific or "extension" functions. XSLT, on the other hand, defines a framework in which extension functions can be used. Similarly, XForms provides a general outline of how extension functions fit in.

Extension functions are easily recognizable since all built-in functions are unprefixed names, while all extension functions contain a leading prefix and a colon character. A group of volunteers at the web site collect and maintain a number of extension functions that are suitable for use in XForms.

The main disadvantage of extension functions is non-portability. Since these functions are implementation-specific, any form that uses them will only work inside implementations that also support the functions used. To make this explicit, any form that uses extension functions should list the QNames of the functions in the functions attribute of the model element. For example, a form that needed a few more date and time functions from the EXSLT library would use the following declaration:

<xforms:model xmlns:exslt=""
functions="exslt:leap-year exslt:month-name exslt:day-name">

Upon initialization, the XForms Processor will check to make sure that all the listed functions are available and immediately signal an error if they are not. For this reason, only functions that are absolutely necessary to the proper functioning of the form should be listed here. On the other hand, failing to list a function here will likely cause a run-time XPath error in some implementations, such as when the user is filling out the form and gets to the point where the XPath engine will try (and fail) to locate the extension function.